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性別平權第一國冰島女性的革命之路世界經濟論壇
2020-01-11 18:26  www.281unionave.com

  近日,世界经济论坛发布《2020年全球性别差距报告》,远离欧洲大陆,人口只有30余万的北欧国家——冰岛,连续第11年位居榜首。在华丽的排名背后,冰岛是性别平权的乌托邦吗?让性别平等从一句口号变为一整套社会机制和文化传统,冰岛人付出了什么努力?

Recently, the World Economic Forum released the 2020 Global Gender Gap Report, far from the continent, with only more than 300,000 people in the Nordic countries - Iceland - topping the list for the 11th consecutive year. Behind the flamboyant rankings, is Iceland a utopia of gender equality? What has Icelanders done to transform gender equality from a slogan into a whole set of social mechanisms and cultural traditions?

  嘉倩出发了,前往冰岛的旅途很漫长。午夜在香港转机,再飞往巴黎,睡眠很浅。在巴黎戴高乐机场飞往冰岛首都雷克雅未克的登机室,来自世界各地的旅人匆匆而过,嘉倩遇到一位76岁的老奶奶,她刚刚结束在巴黎的行程,因为冰岛航班便宜许多,准备从那儿转机回美国。老人的伴侣已不在世,但她仍然坚持独自旅行。嘉倩笑出了眼泪,她自顾自地向老人诉说:“我才26岁,但我觉得我已经老了。”“我梦想成为作家,但是连开始的勇气都没有。”“在中国的生活一团糟,辞职后做的项目烂尾了,我病倒了,然后也分手了。”

Jiaqian set out for a long journey to Iceland. Midnight transfer in Hong Kong, and then to Paris, very light sleep. Travelers from around the world rushed past a 76-year-old grandmother who had just finished her trip to Paris at Paris de Gaulle Airport to the boarding room of Iceland's capital Reykjavik as Iceland's flight was so cheap that she was ready to transfer from there to the United States. The old man's partner is no longer alive, but she still insists on traveling alone. \"I'm only 26 years old, but I feel like I'm old,\" Jia Qian said with tears. \"I dream of becoming a writer, but I don't even have the courage to start. \"Life in China is a mess, the projects I quit and I fell ill and broke up,\" he said.

  在国内,嘉倩刚刚和同龄的丈夫离婚,也放弃产下腹中的孩子,她告诉我:“前夫非常传统,认为女孩子相夫教子就好,他还说我这样的女生和他分开是没有未来的。”嘉倩随后买下那张前往冰岛的单程机票,以技术人才工作签证来到冰岛定居,这本来是计划中的蜜月旅行。

At home, jiaqian has just divorced her husband of the same age and has given up giving birth to her baby, she told me:\" the ex-husband is very traditional, think the girl husband is good, he also said that I such a girl and he separated is no future.\" Jiaqian then bought the one-way ticket to Iceland and settled in Iceland on a skilled worker's work visa, a planned honeymoon trip.

  对于刚到冰岛的嘉倩来说,这个国家宛如一个“乌托邦”,曾让她失意的婚姻在这里突然无足轻重。在冰岛的第二天,嘉倩在雷克雅未克主街看到一位牵着儿子的孕妇,攀谈时得知,孕妇没有结婚,腹中的胎儿是现任男友的孩子,而且两人就要分手了。嘉倩告诉我:“在冰岛不论家庭还是公司,都会支持这样的单身母亲。”婚姻在这片土地上显得过时,冰岛三分之二(67%)以上的婴儿是未婚父母所生。“‘家庭破裂’这个词很糟糕,这意味着您一旦离婚,有些事情就要破裂了。”带着三个孩子、有两任伴侣的冰岛人阿斯蒙多蒂告诉媒体,“但这根本不是冰岛的情况,我们可以选择想要的生活。”

For Jiaqian, who has just arrived in Iceland, the country is like a \"utopia\" where her frustrated marriage suddenly matters nothing. On the second day in Iceland, Jia Qian saw a pregnant woman holding her son on the main street in Reykjavik, and when she talked, she learned that the pregnant woman was not married, the fetus in her belly was the child of her current boyfriend, and the two were about to break up. \"In Iceland, families and companies will support such single mothers,\" Jiaqian told me. Marriage is outdated in the land, with more than two-thirds (67%) of Iceland's babies born to unmarried parents. \"The word'family breakup' is bad, which means something is going to break up once you get divorced. Asmond dotti, an icelander with three children and two partners, told the media,\" but this is not the case in iceland at all, we can choose the life we want.\"

  世界经济论坛发布的《全球性别差距报告》为这份自由提供了可度量的指标。报告包含政治、经济、教育和健康四大项得分。在2020年度最新报告中,冰岛男女平等状况的总体指标连续第11年蝉联世界第一位。其中“政治权利”和“经济参与”分居世界第一和第二位,“识字率”“高等教育”“两性出生率”等二级指标也位列世界第一。

The Global Gender Gap Report issued by the World Economic Forum provides a measure of this freedom. The report included four major political, economic, educational and health scores. In the latest report for 2020, Iceland's overall indicator of gender equality ranked first in the world for the 11th consecutive year. Among them,\" political rights \"and\" economic participation \"separated the world first and second,\" literacy rate \",\" higher education \",\" gender birth rate\" and other secondary indicators also ranked first in the world.

  冰岛人并未因此自满,新的困难和举措层出不穷。即使“男女同工同酬”指数已位列世界第一,今天冰岛女性的平均收入仍然比男性低15%左右,他们计划在2022年彻底消除这项差距,并已在2018年进行立法,对所有25人以上企业的违规行为规定了强硬的罚款。另一方面,政治权利也并非天赐,2016年,冰岛历史上最为性别平等的议会产生,48%的国会议员由女性担任,天平似乎已经归零;仅一年后,2017年冰岛议会中的女性议员占比又掉回38%,在那一年发布的《全球性别差距报告》中,冰岛的“议会女性指数”排名从第一降至第20位,两性的政治平等并不稳固。

Icelanders are not complacent, and new difficulties and initiatives abound. even though the “equal pay for men and women ” index has ranked first in the world, today the average income of icelandic women is still about 15% lower than that of men, and they plan to eliminate this gap completely in 2022, and have legislated in 2018 to impose tough fines for violations by all 25 or more companies. On the other hand, political rights were not a godsend, with the most gender-equality parliament in Iceland's history in 2016, where 48% of its members were women, and the balance appeared to have fallen to zero; only a year later, the percentage of women in Iceland's parliament in 2017 fell back to 38%, and in the Global Gender Gap Report published that year, Iceland's "Parliamentary Women' Index" fell from first to 20th, with gender equality not firm.

  争取平等的同时,冰岛女性也放弃了一些两性交往中的“优待”。嘉倩的第二任丈夫是冰岛人,约会时嘉倩明白了冰岛女生的“不容易”。当时她正在红十字会做义工,她问一位女同事:“我要不要主动约他呢?对方会不会不珍惜?”同事感到莫名其妙:“你想他就主动约他呀,否则男生会消失的。”有一次两人还在礼节问题上产生了小分歧,她告诉丈夫,为女生开门、让座是一种很平常的绅士礼貌,得到的回应却是,这在冰岛可是大忌,因为女性会觉得被小看了。嘉倩发现,和政治权益、经济地位相比,这些对传统习惯的变革,才是建立稳固的性别平等的源泉。

While striving for equality, icelandic women have also given up some \"preferential treatment\" in their relationship. Jiaqian's second husband, an Icelander, understood on a date that Icelandic girls were \"not easy \". She was volunteering at the Red Cross when she asked a female colleague,\" Shall I ask him out? Will the other side not cherish?' Colleagues are baffled:\" you want him to ask him out, or the boy will disappear.\" At one point, the couple had a minor disagreement over etiquette, telling her husband that opening the door for girls and giving up seats was a common courtesy, but the response was that it was a big bogey in iceland because women would feel looked down upon. Jiaqian found that these changes to traditional habits are the source of solid gender equality compared to political rights and economic status.

  如今的生活令嘉倩感慨起美国作家理查德·耶茨(RichardYates)的小说《革命之路》中女主人公艾普莉的结局。书中艾普莉想去巴黎开始新的生活和事业,而丈夫则想留在美国求得升迁。在争吵无果后,艾普莉选择了自残性的流产,最后死在医院。嘉倩将来打算写一本小说,不会给艾普莉这样的结局,“艾普莉应该在巴黎成为一个很棒的剧场演员,她会过上想要的生活”。但嘉倩也明白,冰岛女性所经历的“革命之路”,远比她所想象的“happyending”要复杂而漫长。

Today's life makes Jia Qian feel the ending of Epley, the heroine of American writer Richard Yates's novel The Road to Revolution. In the book April wants to go to Paris to start a new life and career, while her husband wants to stay in the United States for promotion. After the argument failed, April chose to self-harm the abortion, and finally died in the hospital. Jia Qian plans to write a novel in the future, will not give the end of April,\" April should be a great theater actor in Paris, she will live the life she wants.\" But mr jia also understands that the \"path of revolution\" experienced by icelandic women is far more complex and long than she thought \"happy ending \".

  在雷克雅未克市郊一位农场主的小儿子埃约尔松眼里,冰岛女性地位的分野始于他父亲的青年时代。“爷爷在世时还经常说,女人应该留在家里。”埃约尔松今年27岁,因为小时候母亲在雷克雅未克市区工作,父亲已经全职在家中照看农场,他在5岁以前都由父亲带大,他开玩笑道:“这在冰岛很平常,我从小和他在一起,父亲都快嫌我烦了。”

In the eyes of Eyolsson, the youngest son of a farmer on the outskirts of Reykjavik, Iceland's female divide began in his father's youth. \"Grandpa also used to say when he was alive that women should stay at home. Mr eyorsson,27, joked:\" it's normal in iceland, when I was a kid with him, my father was bored with me.\"

  在女性思潮风起云涌的20世纪70年代,埃约尔松的父亲还在念高中。1975年10月24日,全冰岛90%的女性展开罢工,首都地区一半女性参与了运动,反对将女性视作辅助劳动力,随意地召回和遣返。罢工使冰岛经济陷入停滞:学校、托儿所、商店和工厂纷纷关门歇业。由于当时报社的打字员通常是女性,连报纸都无法打印。男人们要么在家里发呆,要么自己带孩子去上学。夜晚,女人拒绝在家做饭,一位当时就在广场上的女权主义者回忆道:“街上弥漫着烤肉烧焦的味道,男人们正在尝试自己下厨。”

In the 1970s, when women were in high school, Eyolsson's father was still in high school. On October 24,1975,90 per cent of all-ice island women went on strike, and half of the women in the capital took part in the movement against the arbitrary recall and repatriation of women as auxiliary labour. Strikes have stalled Iceland's economy: schools, nurseries, shops and factories are shutting down. Since the newspaper typists were usually female, they couldn't print. Men either stay at home or take their children to school. At night, women refuse to cook at home, and one feminist, who was in the square at the time, recalls:\" The street is filled with the smell of barbecue and men are trying to cook their own.\"

  在埃约尔松的回忆里,罢工确实改变了那一代人,包括他的父亲。“父亲说他没有对立的情绪,只是觉得这是全世界都在发生的改变。”但这场变革并非一夜之间发生,冰岛女性为此铺陈的道路将近百年。1869年,在农村成立了冰岛第一个妇女协会团体;1894年,冰岛女性协会在首都雷克雅未克创办后,政治诉求集结成军。顶着媒体上对女性“天真”“毫无贡献”“易受亲近男性影响”,以及“过于团结”的指责,协会开始积极游说国会。1915年6月15日,女性终于可以在国会选举中投票,投票年龄却被设置在40岁以上,直到1920年,这一门槛才被撤销。两年后,首位冰岛女性国会议员因吉比约格·比格纳森(Ingibj?rgBjarnason)当选,她的连衣裙在西装革履的国会议员合影中格外显眼。

In eyorsson's memory, the strike did change that generation, including his father. \"His father said he had no opposing emotions and just felt that it was a change that was taking place all over the world. But the change did not happen overnight, and Icelandic women have paved the way for it for nearly a century. In 1869, the first group of Icelandic women's associations was formed in the countryside; in 1894, after the establishment of the Icelandic women's association in the capital, Reykjavik, political appeals were assembled. In the face of accusations in the media that women are \"naive\" and \"uncommitted \",\" vulnerable to closeness to men\" and \"too united \", the association has actively lobbied for congress. On june 15,1915, women were finally able to vote in congressional elections, but the voting age was set at over 40, and the threshold was not lifted until 1920. Two years later, the first Icelandic female MP, Ingibj? rgBjarnason was elected and her dress stood out in a photo of the dressed-up MP.

  百年前追求政治权利时种下的种子,最终在冰岛生根发芽。1975年运动的领导者之一古德伦·赫尔加多蒂(GuerúnHelga-dóttir)认为,罢工至少对从未涉足政治的女性有所影响,她们意识到彼此可以相互支持。

The seeds planted in the pursuit of political rights a century ago eventually took root in Iceland. Guerun Helga-dottir, one of the leaders of the 1975 movement, argued that the strike had at least an impact on women who had never been involved in politics, and they realised that they could support each other.

  在1983年以前,冰岛国会中只有2%?5%的女性,但运动的效果在这个为选举平等做足准备的国家立竿见影。1980年,冰岛和欧洲第一位女总统维格迪丝·芬博阿多蒂(VigdísFinnbogadóttir)艰难当选,此后轻松连任三届。1983年,冰岛议会中妇女的人数急剧增加,从60名议员中的5名跃升至15名,这得益于前一年女性联盟(Women’sAlliance)的成立,女性不再是单打独斗的代表,而是政党政治的一员。

Before 1983, Iceland had only 2% of its parliament? Five percent of women, but the effect of the movement has been immediate in a country that prepares for equality in elections. Iceland and Europe's first female president, Vigdis Finnbogadottir, struggled to be elected in 1980 and have since easily re-elected for three terms. In 1983, the number of women in Iceland's parliament rose sharply, jumping from five out of 60 MPs to 15, thanks to the creation of the Women's Alliance the previous year, where women were no longer a loner but a member of party politics.

  冰岛社会福利部顾问玛格妮娜·马林诺斯多蒂(MagneaMarinósdóttir)相信,女性争取政治权利、占据国会、参与立法的路径会为社会孕育更深刻的变革。这场变革终于要由女性主导。

Magnea Marinosdottir, an adviser to Iceland's Ministry of Social Welfare, believes that women's path to political rights, to Congress and to legislation will breed deeper changes in society. The change is finally dominated by women.

  2008年那场令冰岛举国破产的经济危机爆发前,冰岛的银行之间不断互相借款,国家则不断向外国借款,推动了经济的虚假繁荣。到2006年,在这个常住人口不及上海任何一个区的国度,已经有三家银行跻身全球前300的规模。埃约尔松告诉我:“危机爆发以后,三大银行通通破产,冰岛人都对由男性控制的金融业和政府感到失望,他们合伙偷走了我们的钱财。”女性联盟则一直是银行私有化狂潮中的理性声音,主张保留至少一家国家银行。

Before the country's national bankruptcy crisis in 2008, iceland's banks were borrowing from each other and the state was borrowing from foreign countries, fueling a false economic boom. By 2006, in a country with fewer permanent residents than any other region in Shanghai, three banks were already among the world's top 300. \"After the crisis, the three big banks went bankrupt, and Icelanders were disappointed with the male-controlled financial industry and the government, and they took our money together,\" Mr. Eyorsson told me. The women's union has been a rational voice in the banking privatisation frenzy, arguing for at least one national bank.

  2009年春季政府垮台时,约翰娜·西于尔扎多蒂(JóhannaSigureardóttir)当选为该国首位女总理,所在政党便是女性联盟的继承者。冰岛女性本身是虚假繁荣的受害者。由金融业主导的“赌场经济”开始改变女性的角色,丈夫在银行业的高薪水和高强度,使得越来越多的妻子不得不待在家里。

When the government collapsed in the spring of 2009, Johanna Siguredottir was elected the country's first female prime minister, with her party the heir to the women's coalition. Icelandic women themselves are victims of false prosperity. The financial-led \"casino economy \"has begun to change the role of women, with a growing number of wives forced to stay at home by their husband's high pay and intensity in banking.

  另一方面,冰岛女性也是经济危机的“幸存者”。冰岛的劳动力市场在性别上高度隔离。女性在公共部门工作的可能性更大,而男性则更多选择私营公司的工作。私营的建筑和金融行业受到了泡沫破碎更多的冲击,男性的失业率增幅明显高于女性,危机爆发的四年间,双方的就业率差距就从%缩小到%。

Icelandic women, on the other hand, are \"survivors\" of the economic crisis. Iceland's labour market is highly gender-segregated. Women are more likely to work in the public sector, while men are more likely to choose private companies. The private sector in construction and finance has been hit more by the bursting of the bubble, with male unemployment rising significantly above that of women and the employment gap narrowing from% to% in the four years since the crisis began.

  经济地位的回归为更深度的平等政策铺平道路。西于尔扎多蒂一方面强硬制裁银行业,振兴旅游业,从而带领经济稳步复苏;另一方面,冰岛政府开始注重就业率背后的岗位与薪酬的平等化。到2013年9月,政府要求国有公司及一定规模以上的私营企业的董事会至少有40%的女性(或男性)。纽约城市大学政治学教授珍妮特·约翰逊(JanetEliseJohnson)对此的观点是,从长期来看,女性平均而言可能是更成功的投资者和管理者,因为她们对风险采取了更为合理的方法,冰岛人在经济危机面前选择了女性的领导。

The return of economic status paves the way for deeper equality policies. On the one hand, western el zadotti has toughened sanctions on banks and revived tourism, leading to a steady recovery; on the other hand, the icelandic government has begun to focus on the equality of jobs and pay behind the employment rate. By September 2013, the government had required at least 40% of the boards of state-owned companies and private companies over a certain size to be female (or male). Janet Elise Johnson, a professor of political science at New York City University, argues that in the long run, women may be more successful investors and managers on average, as they take a more rational approach to risk, with Icelanders choosing female leadership in the face of the economic crisis.

  手握实权的总理还推动了一系列激进的性别政策:冰岛国内的性交易被定为犯罪,同性婚姻获得合法地位。西于尔扎多蒂对少数群体的政策优待并非政治表演,因为她本人就是公开的同性恋者,也是两个孩子的母亲,但是家庭从未拖累她的事业。这位带领冰岛走出泥沼的女性,不仅是一国之母,也是冰岛社会传统孕育出的“女儿”。

The powerful prime minister has also promoted a series of radical gender policies: sex trade in iceland is criminalized and same-sex marriage is legal. Western zaldoti's policy preference for minorities is not a political act because she herself is an openly gay person and mother of two, but the family has never been a drag on her career. The woman who led Iceland out of the mire was not only the mother of a country, but also the \"daughter\" of Icelandic society.

  在《2020年全球性别差距报告》中,北欧五国除丹麦以外,均高居性别平等排行的前四。芬兰年轻的女总理桑娜·马林(SannaMarin)也在近日上任。这些寒冷国度的空气有什么魔力?北欧国家共同的历史是否为现代女性的成功提供了土壤?

In the 2020 Global Gender Gap Report, the five Nordic countries, with the exception of Denmark, are among the top four in gender equality. Finland's young female prime minister, Sana Marin, has also recently taken office. What is the magic of the air in these cold countries? Does the common history of the Nordic countries provide the soil for the success of modern women?

  2016年冰岛国会女性议员占比达到创纪录的48%后,美国《财富》杂志资深编辑克莱尔·齐尔曼(ClaireZillman)曾撰文将冰岛女性的成功描述为一个“小国”带给美国的冲击。对此,生活在冰岛的中国作家嘉倩意识到:“在一个人口大国,观点一经抛出,往往石沉大海;但在‘小国’冰岛,我确实有能够改变社会的错觉。”嘉倩曾在雷克雅未克的市政厅工作,令她记忆犹新的是,当时同事们正在计划将景点的洗手间改造成男女混用,仅保留隔间,以解决女性排队的问题。嘉倩参与了同事们的讨论,她的感悟是:“每一项议题影响的居民,就生活在你身边,而不是抽象的概念,这刺激男性去换位思考。”在那次“洗手间改革”中,大部分男性都理解女性排队的难处,没有提出异议。

Claire Zilman, senior editor of Fortune magazine, wrote about the success of Icelandic women as a shock to the United States from a \"small country\" after a record 48 percent share of women in Iceland's parliament in 2016. In response, chinese writer jia qian, who lives in iceland, realises:\" in a populous country, opinions are often thrown out of the sea; but in iceland, a small country, I do have the illusion of being able to change society.\" Ms. Ka-chan, who worked at the city hall in Reykjavik, remembers her work as colleagues planning to transform the bathroom at the site into a mix of men and women, leaving only cubicles to solve the problem of women queuing. Jia qian participated in the discussion with her colleagues, and her feeling was:\" the residents of every issue influence you, not the abstract concept, which stimulates men to think in transposition.\" In that \"toilet reform \", most men understood the difficulties of women queuing, and did not object.

  但是,嘉倩也认为,“小国寡民”的特质并不能直接带动平等意识的形成。在性别平等榜单中同样排在前列的德国、西班牙等国都由几千万人口和欧洲公认的复杂族群构成。埃约尔松对此表示:“你不能把这一切归功于人口。”他还告诉我:“男人们也有自己的圈子,但是为女性投上一票是天然的事。”埃约尔松是冰岛一个温泉合唱团的年轻一员,其他成员大多是和他父亲一般年纪的男性,他们在泡温泉时经常赤身裸体,合唱低沉有力的维京战歌。但埃约尔松觉得那并不是在呼唤冰岛维京时代的男权社会,更多是北欧民族的共同传承,他把历史的遗产视作冰岛女性地位的重要后盾,“我们有坚强的女性”。

However, Jiaqian also believes that the characteristics of \"small country and few people\" cannot directly drive the formation of equality consciousness. Countries such as Germany and Spain, which are also at the forefront of the gender equality list, are made up of tens of millions of people and recognized complex ethnic groups in Europe. \"You can't owe it all to the population,\" Mr. Eyorsson said. \"Men have their own circle, but it's natural to vote for women,\" he told me. Eyolsson is a young member of a hot spring choir in Iceland, and most of the other members are men of his father's age, often naked when soaking up the hot springs, singing low, powerful Viking war songs. But mr eyorsson doesn't think it's calling for a male society in iceland's viking era. It's more of a northern european heritage. He sees the legacy of history as an important backing for iceland's status as a woman,\" we have strong women \".

  在冰岛更遥远的历史中,女性以强悍和独立著称。马林诺斯多蒂介绍:“冰岛自古存在‘强大的女性’(StrongWomen)的概念。尽管具有神话色彩,但它却根植于现实。”在基督教时代以前,冰岛女性是宗教社会中的祭司、诗人、医生和教师,“女性享有一定的自由,并拥有文化和宗教权威”。在冰岛神话里,也不乏从欧洲大陆带领船队前来定居的女性领袖。如果追溯起冰岛作为一个航海国家的历史,一旦这些维京男人们出海劫掠,妻子们就需要在家中承担起狩猎和建筑等职责,甚至继承战死丈夫的财产,成为一家之主。

In iceland's more distant history, women are known for being strong and independent. \"The concept of'strong women' has existed in Iceland since ancient times,\" Marnosdotti said. For all its mythological color, it is rooted in reality. Before the Christian era, Icelandic women were priests, poets, doctors and teachers in religious societies,\" women enjoyed certain freedoms and had cultural and religious authority \". In Icelandic mythology, there are also female leaders who have led ships from continental Europe to settle. If you go back to iceland's history as a seafaring nation, once these viking men go out to sea, wives will have to take on hunting and building duties at home, and even inherit the property of their dead husband and become the head of the family.

  中古时代模糊的性别分工传承至今。嘉倩感受到,“教育是冰岛性别平等意识的首要来源”。冰岛没有男女校之分,学校里老师也鼓励男女生参加一样的社团。不论男生女生,都要学习织毛衣、烹饪等家政技能,嘉倩丈夫和身边男同事的厨艺都来源于此。

The vague gender division of labor inherited from the Middle Ages. Jiaqian felt that \"education is the primary source of gender equality awareness in Iceland \". There are no schools for boys and girls in Iceland, and teachers in schools encourage boys and girls to join the same community. Both boys and girls, to learn knitting, cooking and other domestic skills, Jiaqian husband and colleagues around the cooking are derived from this.

  而对进入社会的男女来说,平等的休假制度也使得两性的社会角色不再僵化,父亲分担了更多家庭教育的责任。冰岛88%的女性受到雇用,“兼职父母”在家轮流照看孩子。自2000年“育儿假”改革以来,父母双方每年都可以享受各自三个月的假期,还有三个月由双方灵活分配。法律是成功的,在2007年,冰岛的父亲们平均休了101天的育儿假,全社会的两性薪酬差距比峰值时低了8%。哥本哈根大学博士后研究员比约恩·阿尔纳松(Bj?rnThorArnarson)认为,由于男性也有了育儿假,雇主们减少了认为女性需要长时间休假来照顾家庭的歧视,冰岛的就业市场为她们提供了更多长时间投入、高薪酬收入的工作岗位。

And for men and women entering society, the system of equal leave also makes the social roles of both sexes less rigid, and fathers share more responsibility for family education. 88% of icelandic women are employed, and \"part-time parents\" take turns at home looking after their children. Since the \"parental leave\" reform in 2000, both parents have been given a three-month vacation each year, and three months have been allocated flexibly by both sides. The law was successful. In 2007, icelandic fathers took an average of 101 days of parental leave, and the gender pay gap across society was 8% lower than at its peak. Bj? rn Thor Arnarson) believes that because men also have parental leave, employers have reduced the discrimination that women need long vacations to care for their families, and Iceland's job market has provided them with more long-term, high-paying jobs.

  男性也是受益者。冰岛男人告别了维京时代的征战与早夭,享受着全欧最长的预期寿命。挪威社会学家和男性研究专家霍尔特(OysteinGullvagHolter)的研究表明,一个国家的性别平等状况与男性福祉之间存在直接的相关性。因为女性参与工作保护了男性免受经济冲击,平等的文化降低了在放假时的焦虑感,帮助他们远离烟酒的危害。冰岛的男人们也可以在和妻子相同长度的育儿假期中,享受亲子关系的快乐。

Men are also beneficiaries. Icelandic men bid farewell to the viking-era battle and premature death, enjoying the longest life expectancy in europe. Research by Norwegian sociologist and male researcher Oystein Gullvag Holter suggests a direct correlation between a country's gender equality status and its male well-being. Because women's participation in work protects men from economic shocks, a culture of equality reduces anxiety during holidays and helps them avoid the dangers of alcohol and tobacco. Icelandic men can enjoy the same length of parental leave as their wives.

  然而男性承担的道德压力也显而易见。令人吃惊的是,冰岛是欧洲人均性骚扰报告数最高的国家之一,无处不在的女权意识让任何程度的侵犯都无处遁形,即使是在雷克雅未克充满生机的夜市。冰岛法律对性骚扰的定义非常广泛,基本上包括任何被视为不尊重他人的行为。冰岛大学2010年的一项研究发现,在18岁至80岁的冰岛女性中,有30%的人至少遭到过一次男人的身体攻击,其中13%的人声称遭受过强奸或强奸未遂。

But the moral pressure on men is also obvious. Surprisingly, iceland is one of the highest reported cases of sexual harassment among europeans, and the pervasive feminism of women's rights has left nowhere to hide, even in the vibrant night market in Reykjavik. The definition of sexual harassment in Icelandic law is very broad and essentially includes any behaviour deemed to be disrespectful. A 2010 study by the University of Iceland found that 30 per cent of Icelandic women between the ages of 18 and 80 were physically assaulted at least once by men, with 13 per cent claiming to have suffered rape or attempted rape.

  冰岛早期性别教育也为此进一步革新:在进入幼儿园后,男孩被鼓励更加敏感,女孩则被教育要更加强壮和活泼。冰岛著名教育家玛格丽特·帕拉·奥拉夫斯多蒂(MargrétPálaólafsdóttir)是这一理念的倡导者,她认为:“当总是在一起时,女孩看着男孩,她们会想‘我要成为女孩,所以我不会表现得像男孩一样’。”奥拉夫斯多蒂认为这是一种“粉红色的迷雾”(PinkHaze),即女孩必须成为“蕙质兰心”的淑女,有时甚至显得脆弱;反之,处在“蓝色迷雾”(BlueHaze)中的男孩则被教育得更加独立阳刚,这会导致男性的冷漠与暴力。

Early iceland's gender education was further innovated: after entering kindergarten, boys were encouraged to be more sensitive and girls were taught to be stronger and more lively. Margaret Palaolafsdottir, a prominent Icelandic educator, is an advocate of the idea, arguing:\" When it's always together, girls look at boys and they think'I'm going to be girls so I'm not going to act like boys'. Olafsdotti thinks it's a \"pink haze \"(Pink Haze) that girls have to be\" cymbidium-minded \"ladies and sometimes even appear vulnerable; whereas boys in the\" Blue Haze \"are taught to be more independent and masculine, which can lead to male apathy and violence.

  为了破除“性别迷雾”,在奥拉夫斯多蒂的学校里,男女生有半天时间会被完全隔开,分别进行对方性别常见的活动:女孩在户外玩泥巴、做木工,男孩在室内做安静的小游戏。学校鼓励女孩在游戏时弄脏自己,“否则她们会一直停留在舒适区,直到20岁进入社会以后,一切都来了”。另一个半天里,男女生聚在一起,学校鼓励他们的接触,以便学会感知对方的情绪。布莱恩是一位常驻冰岛工作的美国人,他正在休育儿假,对于儿子在学校里被传授的“女性气质”,他并不担心:“我在放假期间可以教给他所有那些‘传统的男性特质’,但是学校那些都是我无法在家里教他的。两种特质结合后,他这代人的未来让我很期待。”

In order to break the \"gender fog \", in olafsdotti's school, male and female students are completely separated for half a day, each carrying out gender-common activities: girls playing mud outdoors, carpentry, boys doing quiet little games indoors. Girls are encouraged to get dirty in their games,\" otherwise they'll stay in the comfort zone until they enter society at the age of 20. For another half-day, boys and girls get together, and the school encourages their contact in order to learn to perceive each other's emotions. Brian, an american who works in iceland, is taking parental leave and doesn't worry about the \"femininity\" that his son is taught at school:\" I can teach him all the'traditional masculinity' during the holidays, but I can't teach him at home. The future of his generation is something I'm looking forward to when the two traits are combined.

  回到当下,冰岛现任女总理雅各布斯多蒂(KatrinJakobsdottir)更相信政策的短期力量。她撰文指出:“文化转变可以使家庭摆脱传统的男性养家糊口模式,但是性别的工资差距将继续迫使男人参加工作,同时让女人待在家里。”相较于将工资差距视作性别不平等的结果,雅各布斯多蒂认为工资差距就是不平等的来源,强制薪酬平等的法案也在这一思路下出台,这是冰岛这些年最轰动世界的改革。但是到了2022年,即使两性的薪酬差距按计划被完全抹平,“乌托邦”冰岛仍面临深层的两性区隔。

Back in the moment, Katrin Jakobsdottir, Iceland's current female prime minister, believes more in the short-term power of policy. She wrote:\" cultural change can move families away from traditional male breadwinners, but the gender pay gap will continue to force men to work while leaving women at home.\" Rather than treating the wage gap as a result of gender inequality, jacobs dotti sees it as a source of inequality, and a bill to enforce pay equality has been introduced, the most sensational reform in iceland in recent years. But by 2022, even if the gender pay gap is completely erased as planned, utopia still faces a deep gender divide.

  曼彻斯特商学院的吉尔·卢比(JillRubery)教授认为:只关注“同工同酬”并不能解决各个公司中的性别工资差距,因为“同工同酬”只能代表相同岗位的薪酬相等,然而冰岛男性经常集中任职于高薪或高级管理岗位。《2020年全球性别差距报告》显示,冰岛58%的管理岗位由男性掌握,而女性只在技术型专业型岗位上占据优势。2018年,在冰岛最大的100家公司中,只有11%的CEO由女性担任。2008年经济危机以来的职场性别区隔并未被颠覆,这也是冰岛在“同工同酬”上做到世界最佳时,男女平均收入仍有至少15%差距的原因。

Professor Jill Ruby of Manchester Business School believes that focusing on \"equal pay for equal work \"does not address the gender pay gap across companies, as \"equal pay for equal work \"is only for equal pay in the same position, whereas Icelandic men are often concentrated in high-paying or senior management positions. According to the 2020 Global Gender Gap Report,58 per cent of Iceland's management positions are in men's hands, while women only have an advantage in technical and professional jobs. In 2018, only 11 percent of Iceland's largest 100 companies had a female CEO. The gender gap in the workplace since the 2008 economic crisis has not been reversed, which is why the average income gap between men and women remains at least 15% when iceland is doing its best for equal pay.

  另一方面,也有专家担忧冰岛在平权问题上走得太远,以至于忽略了“天性”。美国保守派研究机构“美国传统基金会”的首席财政和经济专家罗米娜·波西亚(RominaBoccia)就认为,在冰岛,有大约%的收入差距不是由性别歧视产生,而是无法向监管机构做量化解释的。例如她从民意测验中得出,除了现金工资以外,女性还希望拥有更多的灵活性和更长的休假时间。波西亚预言,冰岛僵化的薪酬结构,会导致更多临时的和派遣式的工作安排。

On the other hand, there are experts who fear that iceland has gone too far on affirmative action to ignore \"nature \". Romina Boccia, chief financial and economic expert at the American Heritage Foundation, a conservative research firm, argues that in Iceland, roughly% of the income gap is not created by sex discrimination but cannot be quantified to regulators. In addition to the cash salary, for example, she concluded from the poll, women want more flexibility and longer vacation time. Portia predicted that Iceland's rigid pay structure would lead to more temporary and dispatch-style arrangements.

  对于这%“不可解释”的收入差距,嘉倩毫无知觉。她辞去朝九晚五的工作,成为梦想中的旅冰作家,收入比丈夫高,自己在熟悉的市区里买了房,还在冰岛做起了民宿生意。丈夫对此没有异议,他一直住在郊区。作为中国人,嘉倩比大部分冰岛人保守,婚姻依然让她有安全感。尽管前路漫漫,但有一句话或许足够成为嘉倩组建新家庭以及冰岛建设“乌托邦”的奠基石,那是她跟我谈到丈夫——一位土生土长的冰岛男人时说的:“他支持着我的事业,拿我当一个独立的人看待。”

For this% of the \"unexplained\" income gap, Jia Qian is not aware. She quit her nine-to-five job as a dream ice writer, earning more than her husband, buying a house in the familiar city and starting a lodging business in Iceland. The husband has no objection to this, he has been living in the suburbs. As a chinese, jiaqian is more conservative than most icelanders, and her marriage still gives her a sense of security. Despite the long road ahead, there is perhaps enough to be the cornerstone of katharum's new family and iceland's \"utopia \", as she told me about her husband, a native icelandic man:\" he supports my career and sees me as an independent man.\"

  (本文刊载于《三联生活周刊》2020年第1期。感谢旅冰作家嘉倩对本文提供的帮助,实习生刘悦阳对本文亦有贡献)

( This article appears in the first issue of Triple Living Week in 2020. Thank you for your help and your contribution to this article.)